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The reverse traffic would have included metals, in particular tin, together with However, on his return to Gaul in the autumn Caesar was faced with a major revolt grain, cattle, slaves, hides and hunting dogs Strabo G 4. The real reason for the of the Belgae and the Treveri precipitated by the charismatic war leader, Ambiorix of revolt probably lay in the fact that the submissions extracted in the previous year by the Eburones, a small but hardy tribe in the Arduenna Silva Ardennes. In the flurry of Publius Licinius were all but nominal. However, one Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta and Quintus Titurius Sabinus, were surrounded and all but of his most able legates, Decimus Iunius Brutus Albinus who would later play a key role annihilated.

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Was this a case of poor leadership? Caesar, with needless cruelty it seems, Sabinus as an inept coward. Whatever the truth, it demonstrated to the Gauls for the first put the whole of the elder council to the sword and sold the tribe into slavery.


Publius time that Caesar was not invincible. As a result, the Nervii were emboldened to mount a Licinius, meanwhile, had subdued some of the tribes of Aquitania. They quickly With hindsight, it is easy to argue that Caesar, who was relying on the supposed withdrew into their forests, creating difficulties for Caesar. The onset of bad weather subjection of the Gauls, had quartered his legions unwisely far apart. With his usual luck forced him to pull back. He then defeated the Usipetes and the conquered.

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Further armed rebellions, even more serious, were to follow. Tencteri, two Germanic tribes that had been crowded across the Rhine by the Suebi, the strongest nation on the eastern bank. Caesar alleged treachery on their part in the negotiations, but his establishing Roman control in north-eastern Gaul.

Vicious punitive strikes against the own version in the fourth commentarius does not support this. During a brief armistice, recalcitrant Nervii forced them to surrender. A few thousand Menapii, which forced them to submit for the first time, and the Treveri. Caesar built a survivors managed to escape across the river. In faraway Rome, Cato was so indignant at second bridge close to the first location, and led a punitive expedition over the Rhenus this act of unnecessary brutality that he proposed in the Senate to send Caesar in chains to to punish the Germanic tribes for having aided the Gauls.

But supply problems and the tribal survivors for punishment Caes. No notice was taken of his proposal. His forays Caesar then decided to intimidate the Germanic tribes further. As opponents, demonstrate the power of your army and convince those sitting on the fence much an engineering genius as a master soldier, in just ten days Caesar had built a trestle to come down and support your side.

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The elusive Ambiorix of the Eburones managed to bridge across the Rhine near present day Coblenz. The first Roman invasion of Germania slip away with a small band of horsemen, and was never caught. Both tribes occupied land south of the Seine and hitherto had been left Britannia with two veteran legions VII, X and horsemen. He risked everything largely unmolested. As the year drew to a close, some 2, Sugambrian horsemen crossed the Rhenus and raided Gaul.

Only the heroism of individuals, especially centurions, saved the day. For Gallia Transalpina; this was the genesis of the famed legio V Alaudae, with another legion, Caesar, by contrast, we do at least have his well-known memoirs. Citizens or not, these tiro recruit legionaries his ambition was on a collision course both with the Senate and his great were going to be needed.

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From 58 bc onwards Caesar conquered more Gaulish territory rival Pompey. He found himself no such mandate from the Senate , as an audacious and astute politician he confronting an armed rebellion by almost all the Gaulish tribes under the command of was aware of the importance — the necessity — of the semblance of legality, their elected war leader, Vercingetorix.

The two armies were to clash at Avaricum and and needed to maintain favourable public opinion back home. It is to this Gergovia, then again at Alesia. The latter would become a graveyard for one of them.

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Although Gaul was now completely under Roman control, there were still pockets of discontent that Caesar and his legates had to deal with. Come springtime, Caesar marched to Belgica to It is difficult to know what to make of Vercingetorix from this distance, for suppress the Bellovaci. His show of strength dealt a final blow to latent Belgic resistance.

This is especially so because he is primarily known to us through appeared to be nothing other than the backwash of Alesia. To put a stop to further revolts, king, but had been killed by his compatriots in factional fighting. Setting and doubtless to remind the natives of the benefits of Roman overlordship, Caesar oneself up as a king was an offence punishable by death among the more ordered the hands of all those who had borne arms against him to be cut off. The rest of the campaign season was been abandoned in favour of elected magistrates.

Caesar BG 7. He was therefore something that still remained. By the end of his last year in Gaul Caesar was able to return to Gallia of a social pariah who had nothing to gain from conforming; leading an Cisalpina content in the knowledge that his conquests and achievements would survive.

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Vercingetorix had independently recruited to his cause bands of young warriors from diverse tribes. Once many of the tribes had pledged support for him, Vercingetorix quickly got to work and prepared for a showdown with Rome. He was a great speaker, and easily won the approval of Gaulish warriors, which they customarily demonstrated by clashing their weapons. He possessed all the qualities sculpted the Statue of Liberty.

To him, of course, the controversial figure. Whatever reservations arvernian war leader was little may be held about this side of his character, more than a troublesome rebel.

Celtic Music - Surrender at Alesia - Vercingétorix & Caesar. 52 BC.

His peculiarly patriot, as an accomplished daring personality instantly won the leader, and as a symbol of gallic confidence of his men. At Alesia Caesar resistance to the threat of would demonstrate the qualities that made external encroachment, real or imagined. Like most good men follow him under adverse conditions. He legends, the one that surrounds was fit, both mentally and physically, him is not totally unfounded, energetic and confident, capable of making but the bare facts of his life are rapid decisions but also willing to listen to his rather less colourful than the language of folklore.

His soldiers seldom saw nonetheless, he did make one him ruffled and he was always ready for a unwitting contribution to simple joke. Yet it is not prone to impetuosity like so many Gaulish chieftains, insulated as they important to remember that when Caesar left were within their local little worlds of feuds and forays. He was to prove for Gaul, his practical military experience had himself more than a match for Caesar in strategy.

During his defence of been minimal. He certainly had very little Gergovia near Clermont-Ferrand it is interesting to read that each morning experience at the head of legions, a deficiency at first light Vercingetorix assembled his war chiefs in council and allotted he partly made up by taking Titus Atius them their daily tasks, much like a modern military commander BG 7. These had included a marble statue paris, Jardin des Tuileries, inv. Pure terror, or was it a matter of plain trust?

Amongst the Gauls fellow soldier at the storming of Mytilene 81 bc. It is possible he saw some for le parc de Versailles; its bearing and baton is diversity was more obvious than uniformity, tribal autonomy more obvious action as a military tribune sometime during the Third Servile War 73—71 somewhat reminiscent of the than national interdependence. The concept of one people, one law, one bc , a detestable war of ambushes and inglorious surprises. Ruler of tongue did not apply in Gaul. The lessons he drew than seven decades, Louis led his armies in his youth but, a great council was convened at Bibracte Mont Beuvray , the principal and later applied were that unity was strength, safety lay in numbers and unlike Caesar, who remains the oppidum of that tribe.

It was here that a popular vote unanimously confirmed military professionalism was power — simple to state, difficult to accomplish. For Gaulish arms this represented a staggering achievement, for Caesar visited a shrine in Gades Cadiz and gazed upon a statue of Alexander. However, both men bought Caesar a massive blow to his personal prestige. Indeed, in 30 years the dashing Macedonian world conqueror innocent blood.


When stepping into a fight, the decision was taken either by necessity or by Most great generals of ancient times gained their laurels while still young. At the age of 45 he had conquered all Greece. He died at Alexander it would be his splendid example of bravery that would help save the day. At himself had defeated the celebrated Theban Sacred Band at the battle of Alesia, in contrast, Caesar led the final attack as the enemy were on the verge Chaironeia, and gained a military reputation at the age of He ascended of overrunning his siege lines. When his soldiers realized that Caesar himself the throne of his father Philip before 20, and immediately entered on that was coming, they fought with greater vigour and won the day.

At 25 he had reached There were of course considerable risks when demonstrating such direct the zenith of his military fame, having already conquered the known world. Caesar clearly understood that command must He died before the age of Caesar, on the other hand, was 52 when he be singular, and that only when momentum was required to assure victory won the field of Pharsalus. At the opening of the civil war his opponent or in a desperate and doomed last stand should the commander enter the Pompey appeared at the head of the army at the advanced age of Having forefront of the fighting.

His strategic and tactical flair, his personal In battle a Roman commander needed to be able to exercise control over leadership, his speed and use of surprise — as well as copious amounts of his army at all times.